BREAKTHROUGH PRINCIPLES
Breakthroughs

John M. Ketteringham; P. Ranganath Navak 1986
ü As long as one is on task do not discourage creativity and innovation.
ü Values of individuals must be put above the values of the system.
ü Failures and setbacks help you gain more information about the task and yourself.
ü One cannot be defeated when a shared commitment is accompanied by outstanding individual performance and a willingness to contribute that performance to the group.
ü Experts will often reject a potentially good idea due to their inability to see beyond the goals and needs of the system.
ü Respect must be conveyed to subordinates and take care of those who are part of your productive team.
ü When ordinary people are given a challenge they will rise to the level of that challenge.
ü When you have a task to complete, the right people are more important than the resources you have.
ü When others know that you are depending on them, they will feel committed to come through.
ü When a group feels committed to prove that something can be done, they will act on a level greater than consideration of financial reward.
ü Significant breakthroughs are more like a work of art than of commerce.
ü Innovations sometimes must be passed from person to person with each lending the concept different talents.
ü Tenacity and unbounded energy will neutralize the resistance and skepticism that naturally come from the system when a breakthrough occurs.
ü Our way of living is often changed by the vision and persistence of those willing to pay the price in bringing an idea into being.

Intelligence: The ability to learn or understand from experience; the ability to respond quickly and successfully to a new situation; use of the faculty of reason in solving problems; use of the faculty of reason to direct conduct effectively. Intelligence is:
Thinking
Emotions
Action
Expression
Imagination
Results
Seeking
Interaction

Creativity missing in schools -Think radially, Kaplan says
By Angelee J. Harris - Universe Staff Writer

Education trains people to think in an uncreative way, said a visiting philosophy professor at a seminar for BYU faculty members Tuesday. Abraham Kaplan, the author of several books, and chairman of the Philosophy Department at the University of Haifa, said this is not to say professional training isn’t needed, but new circumstances call for new ideas.
Kaplan named two types of thinking processes; radial and linear.
Educators are “rigidly schooled” in linear thinking, Kaplan said. Radial thinking is the type which is used for creative purposes, he said.
Linear thinking is “systematic, direct (and) demonstrative,” while radial thinking is “spontaneous, circuitous (and) suggestive,” Kaplan said.
Radial thinking is important because it allows people to restructure the world in which they live, Kaplan said.
This event occurs “when we are prepared not to look at it (the world) in terms of the patterns that are already at hand, but ask ourselves ‘is there some other way it could be structured,’” he said.
He said that education interferes with people’s capacity for radial thinking because “we are too highly skilled and we are too well trained.”
A 4-year-old Chinese child can learn Mandarin because he does not know another language, said Kaplan. On the other hand, he said, adults who know another language have a hard time learning Mandarin because their other language keeps getting in the way.
“All children are geniuses,” Kaplan said. But all adults are not geniuses, “What happened in between is what we call education,’ said Kaplan.
Education teaches people so much about the world that they do not wonder or question.
There are bad habits in thinking, just as there are bad habits in actions, Kaplan said.
The characteristics of a radial mind are that it is open, it resists the pressure to arrive at a definite conclusion, it resists premature closure of an idea and it always keeps in mind that human beings make mistakes, Kaplan said.

Quotes:
“I expect you all to be independent, innovative, critical thinkers who will do exactly as I say.”
“I realize that many of you from my class never read the textbook, so I’m taking this opportunity to read it to you.”
The aging society develops elaborate defenses against new ideas. – John W. Gardner
“I hope that future teachers will experience preparation programs of such length, depth, and quality that they will be effectively separated from most of the conventional ways of teaching.” --John Goodlad (A Place Called School)--
Mold and build character and attitude into something beautiful and enduring. --Boyd K. Packer

Thought Capsule: Your greatest challenge, as a teacher, is to develop the individual thinking style, of each student in your classroom - If a student fails because of lack of effort, that is one thing. If a student fails because you discriminate against a thinking style, that is quite another.

Why learn? Because the world is moving and we need to keep up with it. --Marion D. Hanks

“One of the most disturbing findings reported . . . is the narrow range of teaching practices used by teachers in our sample, particularly at the secondary level.” --John Goodlad (A Place Called School)


Your challenge as a teacher is to diversify your teaching strategies. Remember that “Telling is not Teaching!” Visual learning is much more powerful than verbal learning so why not make it one of your teaching tools.

One study indicated that the highest achievement scores at a national level were in the first grade; the lowest were at the 12th grade level. Obvious teaching techniques often become barriers to learning progress.

A student’s aim is not to get ahead of others but to surpass himself. – Hugh B. Brown
Teachers are more interested in control than learning.

As a teacher be committed, non-neutral, and biased. Be willing to take a stand for that which is right. --Boyd K. Packer
“…about 75% of class time was spent on instruction and that nearly 70% of this was ‘talk’ – usually teacher to students. Teachers out-talked the entire class of students by a ratio of about three to one.
To Ponder:
Ø Where do Ideas come from?
Ø How do you validate creativity?
Ø Reach out to all the different thinking patterns.
Ø Freeing information & students

Ø Research tells us we should be developing each person’s individual learning style.
Ø When you take away choice you are threatening one’s agency.
Ø First I shape ; thereafter, _ shape me.
Ø A study of 200 most eminent individuals in the United States shows that many of them hated school and were stamped as underachievers.
Ø Being dissatisfied with the obvious can be your greatest agent of change.
Ø Research shows that the only high school courses that seem to make a difference in success in life are the extracurricular classes.
Ø A few teachers use individualization as the basic method of instruction.
Ø Individualization changes the teacher from a dispenser of information to a manager of learning experiences.
Ø A recent teacher of the year said: “My career changed, when I decided to start having my students learn how to think rather than memorize facts.”

“Barely 5% of . . . instructional time was designed to create students’ anticipation of needing to respond. Not even 1% required some kind of open response involving reasoning or perhaps an opinion from students. Usually, when a student was called upon to respond, it was to give an informational answer to the teacher’s question.” --John Goodlad, A Place Called School

The Colelman Study examined 600,000 students in our schools to try to find out what factors make a difference in achievement. The 2 major factors:
1. a sense of control over their own learning (self-worth),
2. The kind of socio-economic background of the student.

As a teacher you should plan to provide rich outside of school experiences to reinforce your instruction in the classroom. We need to find experiences which free our students from tight controls and restrictions.

Just some pictures of recycled items made into art.

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